Maṅgala Sutta--Protection with Blessing(吉祥經)

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Establishing of Mindfulness: Satipatthāna

文章 Nalorakk » 2019-11-22, 15:49

Establishing of Mindfulness: Satipatthāna

Satipatthāna Sutta is the direct path to the realization of the 4 Noble Truths. Therefore Buddhists should know this important sutta for the practice. Want to know more detailed on this sutta can read & study the book by Ven. Anālayo, Satipatthāna – The Direct Path to Realization, an excellent book on this sutta. Here I present a general outline from the Dhamma talks by Sayadaw Dr. Nandamalarbhivamsa.


What is satipatthāna? To know the exact meaning of this word is valuable. By separating it and becomes two words; sati + patthāna or sati + upatthāna. Satipatthāna was used by the commentary & satiupatthāna was in the suttas. Satiupatthāna is mindfulness staying with the object or presence of mindfulness. Satipatthāna is mindfulness has to stay with the four objects.

Sayadaw translated satipatthāna as establishing of mindfulness. Sati has the meaning of mindful of the object or remembering. So it has two meanings; sati stays with the object & memory. The first one concerns with the present. In the suttas, sati was defined as the wholesome quality, & not used in unwholesome matters.

Then, what about wrong mindfulness-miccha-sati? This is remembering of unwholesome matter. The Buddha emphasized strongly that sati was always needed. It did not like the other four faculties (indriya – spiritual faculty), i.e., conviction, persistence, concentration & discernment. These four need to be balanced.

In the beginning, the Buddha talked about the results of establishing of sati – satipatthāna. This point is very important. Only with results & benefits, people have the interest to do it. There are also dangers & disadvantages by doing things blindly before consideration. There are seven results;

(1) For the purification of beings – the practice purifies the mental impurities, i.e., defilements. So it leads to happiness & peace. Different path knowledge purifies forever of different impurities accordingly, e.g. the first path knowledge (maggañāna) purifies the identity view of the five khandhas, non-returner for hatred, anger, ill-will, etc.

(2) For the surmounting of sorrow & lamentation – soka & parideva:
Soka means lost something & become sorrow & parideva means crying with sorrow. With the practice, surmount these negative mental states. (Here are two results)

(3) For the disappearance of dukkha & discontent (dukkha & domanassa).
Here dukkha means bodily dukkha & domanassa means mental dukkha, both mean bodily & mental sufferings. What are the differences between soka & domanassa? They are nearly the same meaning, but differences in aspects. Domanassa is something happening in mind & become discontent. Both of them are feelings of dosa nature. If dukkha arises & follows with domanassa. (Here are two results)

(4) For acquiring the true method:
With the practice arrives on the main road to Nibbāna. It is not easy to arrive on the main road for realization. There are many reasons for it & only the Buddhists know why?

(5) For the realization of Nibbāna:
These results were the guarantee gave by the Buddha.

And then the Buddha continued the four satipatthāna in general.

Contemplate the body as the body & not other ways. This is differentiating the object. Sati needs to see a thing as it is. If it is the body, then it is the body. The meaning of pass is contemplating. Samādhi and paññā are including in the contemplating. The factors include are; ātāpī – practicing very hard or perseverance or diligent; sampajãna –knowing, knows knowing the situation of the mind & satima – must have sati.

Natural phenomena are working together. In the contemplation must has these three factors. There are five functional factors – karaka maggaṅga; right view, right thought, right effort, right mindfulness & right concentration. They are working together. What are they pushing away? Or are they overcoming? The hindrances – nivaranas are overcome. They defiled the mind & blockage the knowledge to arise.

Therefore wholesome mental states cannot arise. Here the Buddha was only sorting out two hindrances; desires (abhijjhā) & discontent (domanassa). Abhijjhā here is thinking on objects with greed (lobha). This is not the mental action of covetousness (abhijjhā) which mentioned in the ten unwholesome kammas. The same word but have different meanings. Here is thinking about desirable & pleasant objects.

With the undesirable & unpleasant objects discontent arises. Contemplating with ātāpī, sampajãna & sati, and these hindrances cannot arise, or like or dislike cannot arise. Contemplating feelings, minds & dhammas are also in the same way. In the introduction of the satipatthāna sutta, the Buddha gave the general outline.

The reason behind the four objects of satipatthāna is relating to the abandoning of 12 inversions or distortions (vipallāsa) with the body contemplation to see the body nature of without beauty or unattractiveness (asubha). To see the feelings as dukkha. To see the mind as inconstant (anicca). And to see the dhammas as not-self (anatta).

And then, distorted knowledge will not arise. In Buddhist meditation, there are two ways to Nibbāna; start from samatha practice to insight & start with insight (samatha yanika & vispassanā yanika). Among yogis, there are three characters; wisdom, craving & view. These can be divided into weak & strong characters.

For samatha yanika:
Weak in wisdom – contemplation on the body.
Strong in wisdom – contemplation on the feeling.

For vipassanā yanika:
Weak in wisdom – contemplation on the mind.
Strong in wisdom – contemplation on the dhammas.

Yogis with weak craving (tanhā) contemplate the body. Yogis with strong craving (tanhā) contemplate the feelings. Yogis with a weak view (ditthi) contemplate the mind. Yogis with a strong view (ditthi) contemplate the dhammas. In one of the suttas in Aṅguttara Nikāya, mentioned the important points in the practice.

First abandoning the hindrances, with one of the satipatthāna practice & develop the enlightenment factors, will realize Nibbāna. There are two ways of abandoning the hindrances; with samatha practice & direct satipatthāna practice. The realizations of the yogis are only slow & quick results. Here Sayadaw remarked the commentaries. He said that the commentarial expositions were the works of teachers who had experienced. And not just only purely scholarly works.

文章: 405
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Contemplation of the body: Kāyānupassanā

文章 Nalorakk » 2019-11-22, 15:53

(1) Contemplation of the body: Kāyānupassanā

Anupassanā means contemplate for many times until penetrating the Dhamma. In this body, contemplations were practicing with the 14 types of objects and are divided into six parts.

[1] Mindfulness of Breathing
[2] Postures & Activities (2 parts)
[3] Anatomical Parts & Elements (2 parts)
[4] Nine Contemplations of the Corpse in Decay.

Contemplation or meditation is exercising the mind with the objects of meditation. Let mindfulness stays with the object. First, the Buddha taught Mindfulness of Breathing. Here in & out breaths are objects. Sati only takes the objects, & ñāna (knowledge) knows the object. Both of them are working together. Next body contemplation is The Four Postures; sitting, walking, standing & lying down.

The body cannot survive without changing with the changing of postures that it can survive longer. But for most people not aware of the changes, because of a lack of mindfulness or awareness. They are doing things habitually & the mind is at other places. These are connections with the big postures, & actions.

There are also other small activities. These exercises are in the Mindfulness with Clear Knowing (sati-sampajãna) or mindfulness & clear knowledge (sati-sampajāñña). The instructions for clear knowing are; going forward & returning; looking ahead & looking away; flexing & extending the limbs; wearing clothes & carrying things; eating, drinking & tasting; defecating & urinating; walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking & keeping silent.

The next two exercises are Anatomical Parts & Elements: Contemplating the anatomical constitution of the body; direct mindfulness to an analysis of the body parts. It listed various anatomical parts, organs & fluids. Review this same body up from the soles of the feet and down from the top of the hair, enclosed by skin, as full of many kinds of impurity.

There are: head-hairs, body-hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, bowel, mesentery, contents of the stomach, faeces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, spittle, snot, oil of the joints & urine (can include the brain).

There is a sutta in the Sutta Nipāta called Vijaya Sutta – Victory on Delusion, where a thorough investigation of the body leads from its outer anatomical parts to its inner organ & liquids. The aim of the contemplation described was to reduce one’s attachment to the body.

The sutta itself was a good contemplation on this subject. With the development of medical science, nowadays it is easy to visualize the outer & inner organs. Some people donated their bodies for this purpose. There is a method called plastination of the bodily parts for study.

The next exercise is On The Elements; where the body is analyzed into its four elementary qualities. The instruction for this contemplation is; He reviews this same body. However, it is placed, disposed of as consisting of elements.

In this body, there are the earth, the water, the fire & the air elements. Contemplation of the four elements has the potential leads to a penetrative realization of the insubstantial & selfless nature of the body or material reality.

Nine Contemplations of the Corpse in Decay:

These are the contemplations of the corpse in 9 stages of changing or decay. So it involves some degree of visualization & reflection. The yogi has to compare his own body with what he would see in a charnel ground. As though he were to see a corpse thrown aside in a charnel ground -

[1] one, two or 3days dead, bloated, livid & oozing matter
[2] being devoured by crows, hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals, various kinds of worms -
[3] a skeleton with flesh & blood, held together with sinews -
[4] a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, held together with sinews –
[5] a skeleton without flesh & blood held together with sinews -
[6] disconnected bones scattered in all directions -
[7] bones bleached white, the color of shells -
[8] bones heaped up, more than a year old –
[9] bones rotten & crumbling to dust. This body too is of the same nature. It will be like that & it is not exempt from that fate.

These practices highlight two things; the repulsive nature of the body as revealed during the stages of decomposition & death is inescapable destiny for all human beings or living beings.

In all these body contemplations, Sadayaw talked about Mindfulness of Breathing more than others. So here I will present only ānāpānasati.

Mindfulness of Breathing

In practice, we need diligent (ātāpī). Effort (viriya) has two kinds; bodily & mental efforts (karika viriya & cetasika viriya). Mental effort is more important of the two. The yogi must have continuous effort with seriousness and mind energy. Knowing (sampanjãno) is – always reflecting what one’s is doing & always has an awareness of the mind states.

This is the balancing of art in practice. Protecting the practice is mindfulness (sati). Samādhi (concentration ) & paññā (discernment) are also included. Ātāpī is a right effort (sammā-viriya); sampanjãno is right view (sammā-ditthi) & sati is right mindfulness (sammā-sati). Natural phenomena are doing their jobs. They are not mixed-up. E.g., the eye is doing the job of the eye, the ear also doing the job of the ear, when we are watching a video.

The five path factors (karaka maggaṅga) are working together. Sīla-ethical conducts (precepts) has been undertaken during the practice. After the first path of knowledge, it becomes the eight path factors. And then the ethical conducts become natural sīla. Sitagu Sayadaw U Ñānissara delivered many talks on the Ānāpānasati Sutta. People interest in details should listen to these talks.

For sitting meditation, using a quiet place to sit. The sutta mentioned under a tree or near a tree (rukkhamula), an empty room or place (suññāgaram). Sitting crossed legs with a straight back (in a relaxed way). Sati is taking the meditation object.

Mindful of the breaths at the touching point. This was from the commentary. In the sutta-only mentioned – established mindfulness in front of him. The touching point of the breath can be at the tip of the nostril or upper lip, depend on each person.

(1) Mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out

(2) With the development of stage (1)…..
The yogi knows the long in-breath & out-breath, short in-breath & short out-breath.
The progression from knowing longer breaths to shorter breaths reflects the fact that the breath naturally becomes shorter & finer with the continued practice.

(3) He trains thus: I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body. He trains thus: I shall breathe out experiencing the whole body.

In this stage must know the whole body. Here Sayadaw said that some had wrong interpretations & translations. By observing the whole physical body was not ānāpānasati – mindfulness of the breathing. Knowing the whole in-breath & out-breath, from the beginning, middle & the end at the touching point (i.e., at the nostril or upper lip).

At stage (2), the yogi did not know like this. The commentary interpretation was right. According to Sayadaw, traditional interpretations were starting even from the time of the Buddha. By observing the whole physical body & the object is changed (not the breathing anymore).

(4) He trains thus: I shall breathe in calming the bodily formation, He trains thus: I shall breathe out calming the bodily formation.

Here also calming the breath. When the practice is developing, the in & out breaths become refined. And then both of them disappear. In this sutta, the Buddha taught the first tetrad (4 stages) only. It is for the beginner yogis. In the Ānāpānasati Sutta, the Buddha taught 16 stages – the four tetrads. The other 12 stages are for yogis who had developed jhānas (absorption states).

After the above four stages, the Buddha continued to teach; “He abides contemplating the body internally; externally & both.” According to the commentary; internal & external bodies were one’s own & others. This is possible for yogis who have developed jhānas.

These things were mentioned in Pha-Auk Sayadaw’s teachings & his yogis’ experiences. (Other ways of explanations see Ven. Analayo’s book on Satipatthāna Sutta). Here Sayadaw proposed his idea on this point. The external body was in & out breaths. The internal body was the mind of knowing the breaths. With progress in the practice, one can know the contemplating mind with another mind.

In this way, the wrong view falls away on the object & the mind. In the Visadhimagga – mentioned contemplating the object & the knowing mind. When you are practicing alone, how can you contemplate others? In the sub-commentary; by contemplating on others even could not develop samādhi.

With the continued practice & progress, discerning of the nature of arising & passing away culminates in a comprehensive vision of impermanence. To regard all phenomena as impermanence leads to knowledge & understanding.

Insight into the impermanence of the five khandhas is right view & then leads directly to realization. Natural phenomena are with the arising & there is cessation. Therefore dhammas are not existing by themselves. They exist only by conditions.

Mere awareness & clinging to nothing: Mahasi Sadayaw wrote in his book. By knowing in this way, there was only body existing & no thought of a person or being. So tanhā & ditthi could not enter the mind. Except knowing the body & not clinging with other thoughts.

To observe objectively, without getting lost in associations & reactions. Freedom from identification enables one to regard any aspect of the experience as a mere phenomenon. And then free from any self-image & attachment. Clingings are falling away. The practice of ānāpānasati comes to succeed. Other body contemplations also have to practice in this way. (Sayadaw explained very short & general for each of the following on the other body contemplations).

文章: 405
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Contemplation of Feelings: Vedanānupassanā

文章 Nalorakk » 2019-11-22, 15:59

(2) Contemplation of Feelings: Vedanānupassanā

Feelings arise in all minds. When the mind meets or contacts with an object & has experience. Mind exists with feeling. It feels the taste of the object. This experience is feeling. Perception (saññā) is noting the object & feeling (vedana) feel it. Feelings are three types; good, bad, neither good nor bad or neutral feelings.

Vedanānupassanā is contemplating the feeling or experience of the mind. Happy & unhappy are talking about vedana. In some meditation centers, talking about to contemplate until the feelings are expired or to overcome vedana. Could it be expired?

With the mind exists & vedana also exists. Even a very short period of mind (i.e., tadanga) has a feeling (vedana), e.g. – The Path Mind (magga-citta). It experiences Nibbāna as happiness. (Here to overcome vedana means to overcome dukkha vedana with the contemplation. It is possible by practice).

Mental factors (cetasika) are the movements of the mind. So as a function, they are one. Therefore we are using them as mind (citta). There are 52 types of mental factors (cetasikas). From there, the Buddha took out feelings (vedana) as a particular contemplation.

In the Dīgha Nikāya, Sakka-pañhā Sutta, the Buddha also taught Sakka – the deva king on vedana contemplation. There are also suttas in the Vedanasaṁyutta connection with vedana. The Buddha could not talk all about vedana in one sitting. He taught them accordingly with each person & necessity.

Why are we establishing mindfulness (sati)? The only sati takes the object that paññā can know it. Sati cannot know & paññā also cannot take the object. They are working together. In the contemplation of feelings;
[1] continuous contemplation
[2] to know about feelings rightly or correctly.
To know its intrinsic nature & universal three characteristics of anicca, dukkha & anatta.

About the five khandhas (mind & body), the Buddha taught two types; ordinary khandhas or natural khandhas & clinging khandhas (upādānakkhandhā). They are not the same. Clinging khandhas mean, viewing the natural khandhas with wrong view & craving (ditthi & tanhā). These upādānakkhandhās are objects of insight meditation. The Buddha taught them for vipassanā to cure wrong views & thinkings.

In the Bāhu-vedaniya Sutta, the Buddha taught about many feelings. Feelings can be analyzed into three kinds accordingly to their nature; pleasant (sukha), unpleasant (dukkha) & neutral (upekkha) feelings. Firstly, contemplating to see them in the khandha, observe with sati. Can be divided into five types with sense faculties; these are –

[1] pleasant bodily feeling (kayika-sukha),
[2] unpleasant bodily feeling (kayika-dukkha),
[3] pleasant mental feeling (cetasika-sukha),
[4] unpleasant mental feeling (cetasika-dukkha)
[5] neutral feeling.

Pleasant & unpleasant mental feelings are also called – somanassa vedana & domanassa vedana. Feelings arise in the body affect the mind, and vice versa. What are their differences? Both of them are connecting with the mind. Pleasant feeling (sukha vedana) arises in the body & pleasant mental feeling (somanassa vedana) arises in mind. It appears in the body & the mind.

It is body origin & effecting the mind. Mental feelings (cetasika vedana) only arise in mind & not relate to the body directly. It can appear by itself, e.g., smiling. But it can also affect the body. Worldlings (puthujjana) & noble beings (ariyas) are quite different in reaction to feelings. When the body pains & the mind of the worldling also pain. But noble beings are different if the body pains & the mind, not pains.

Without the awareness of feelings, the mind is affecting by greed (lobha) & anger (dosa). If these are happening a lot & it has acceleration and becoming strong & stable as a latent tendency (anusaya). It is latent in mind as defilements. If have these kinds of experience again, desire & lust arise (kāmarāga).

These things are happened because of latent defilements. Therefore anusaya can be said as future defilements. If the causes are there & it can arise. It means, someone has this kind of experience again, this mental state will arise again. If we see something become greedy or angry & if we see it again will arise.

Therefore we have to be mindful or aware of them. No awareness of feelings & not reflect or contemplate them; they are coming again & again. Greed & anger are becoming stronger. Then, we can not liberate from the round of existence (saṁsāra).

It was like a ball rolling among with feelings. Human beings are kicking by dukkha vedana & fall into hell, by sukha vedana become ghosts & by upekkha vedana become animals. Therefore, the Buddha said that the frequent homes of beings were the four woeful planes. In the teaching of Dependent Arising (paticcasamupada), the Buddha taught that feeling (vedana) conditions craving (tanhā).

Why the Buddha not said or mentioned it as anger? Because craving or desire is happening more than anger. E.g., poor people want to be rich & rich people wanting more & more. Only tanhās are coming. Not knowing about neutral feelings (upekkha vedana) & ignorance (avijjā) or delusion (moha) comes in.

It is very important to understand the five khandhas thoroughly by contemplation. The physical body & feelings (kāya & vedana) are very interesting subjects. For human beings, the five khandhas are working together in daily life & cannot separate. Human beings are looking after the body the whole time like a slave. These all are conditioned dukkha & without end.

We are even wasting our precious times with sleep also for the body. We are busy every day for the survival of the body. Even we are treating him like a loyal slave; it has no sympathy & gratitude to us. It is oppressing & tormenting us with old age, sickness & death.

Conditioned dukkha which connecting to the body is very great indeed. If we understand the conditioned dukkha which binds to the physical body; can be dispassionate & easily let go of it. Feelings are too important in human life, and it can be said that we are busy for feelings. It is very closely related to the body & the mind. It affects both. We try to get what we like with any cost — and then getting rid of anything that we do not like.

Feelings have a lot of influence on human beings is cannot be denied. Look at what is happening in today world. Many problems & sufferings are going on in the world through feelings. For pleasant feeling or sensual pleasures, human beings try with any mean to make money without any control.

All sorts of pollutions problems going on in societies, natural environments & the earth. For unpleasant feeling or ill-will or hatred that killing & harming a lot of innocent human beings by wars & terrorism. Human life is not secure anymore. There are dangers always waiting for us. If men can control feelings or become the masters of feeling and the world will be a better place to live.

In the contemplation of feeling; when someone feels a pleasant feeling, he knows “I feel a pleasant feeling” with mindfulness (sati) that he knows about it. With unpleasant & neutral feelings also in the same way to know them when they are arising as; “I feel an unpleasant feeling & a neutral feeling, etc.”

In the first part of the instruction, the Buddha taught the three basic kinds of feelings; pleasant, unpleasant & neutral. Because by themselves can lead to realization. In the satipatthāna sutta, after mentioned these 3
basic feelings were followed by an additional subdivision of feeling into worldly (sāmisa) & unworldly (nirāmisa).

Therefore totally nine kinds of feelings have to be contemplated, whenever & whatever type of feeling arising. If we ask the question; “Who is feeling the vedana?” The answer is vedana feels it. Except vedana and no feeler is there. It is just only natural phenomena or natural process. Sense object (ārammana) contacts (phassa) with sense base (vatthu) that we have the feeling to feel or mind arises.

There are only causes & effects phenomena exist. Only natural phenomena are arising. This is the right view. Vedana arises & vedana feels it. Vedana is very important for us because it leads to craving (tanhā). And then, tanhā leads to suffering (dukkha). With tanhā arises & dukkha will arise. If we cannot deal with feelings & cannot escape dukkha.

Because human beings have a strong attachment to vedana that there are a lot of human problems & sufferings exist in the world. It was like a fish craving for the bait & swallowed it that & died painfully. Also, it was like a drop of honey on the edge of a razor blade whoever licking it would suffer painfully.

Even we can say human beings are fighting each other for vedana. After knowing about the intrinsic nature of feelings; come; “He abides contemplating feelings internally, externally, & both.” Vedana in oneself & others are the same kinds of vedana.

With continued practice & discerning the three universal characteristics of vedana; inconstant, dukkha & not-self. First, knowing the arising & passing away of feelings, mindfulness (sati) is always keeping up with feelings that knowledge (ñānam) develops. With the insight knowledges wrong view & craving (ditthi/tanhā) not arise. After sometimes clinging to feelings fall away. And then the mind becomes free (vimokkha).

文章: 405
註冊時間: 2017-03-03, 08:00

Contemplation of the mind :Cittānupassanā

文章 Nalorakk » 2019-11-22, 16:05

(3) Contemplation of the mind :Cittānupassanā

In daily life, the minds are arising continuously by knowing the sense objects (arammanas). Starting from the rebirth consciousness, the mind depends on sense objects & mind base (arammanas & vatthu) & is arising continuously. To be aware of them, it needs practice. We are talking about the mind very often. E.g.,

I am angry; but we cannot reflect its nature. The mind changed too fast that the Buddha himself mentioned the difficulty of comparison for it. Therefore we cannot know it with normal mindfulness (sati).

We cannot know about this mind with the same mind. Only can be known with the following mind (another mind). Without knowing & mistakes can come in with clinging & attachment. It is natural that without knowing rightly & problems follow on.

In a sutta in Saṁyutta Nikāya, the Buddha said that people no Dhamma knowledge viewed the mind as stable & always existed. But if they took the body in this way was better. Because it existed for the whole life. Viewing the mind in this way was not proper. The Buddha gave the following simile. A monkey roaming through a forest grabbed hold of one branch, let that go & grabbed another, & then let that go & grabbed another, etc.

In the same way mind or consciousness arises & ceases, & then follows by another mind, etc. by day & by night. Contemplation of the mind is to know the nature of the mind by observing with mindfulness (sati). Let us study the nature of the mind. In the texts, which described the mind as sometimes included mental factors (cetasika).

In the satipatthāna sutta was not talking about the mental factors. Here it referred to the knowing nature of the sense objects. Sometimes mind referred to samādhi (concentration). The mind was governing the world referred to mental factors. In this sutta, the mind knows the objects which are arising from the six sense doors.

It is not including feelings, perceptions & mental formations. The natural phenomenon has its characteristic. Here the mind knows the objects only. So here, the individual character of the mind is knowing. In nature, there are two characteristics;

[1] individual characteristic (sabhāva lakkhana), not relate to others & belong to itself
[2] universal characteristic (samaññā lakkhana).

In vipassanā practice, has to start at individual characteristic. Without starting from here & contemplate impermanence is not knowing. This is only knowing by thinking. Only seeing the real impermanence becomes vipassanā. This will only discern the ultimate reality. Thinking may be right or maybe not.

Right thinking can be a support for the practice. But not knowing the ultimate reality directly. Mind or mental phenomena are bending or inclining towards the sense objects. This is its characteristic. The mind can take the objects from far away. Even a lot of ordinary Buddhists take this point wrongly as the mind can travel very far away.

This is similar to the soul or atta. Two kinds of mind cannot arise together & only one by one. The place of the mind is the heart base or mind base (Heart base was by the commentary & mind base was by the Buddha. In Pali, hadaya & vatthu). This mind base is not existing there. But it is arising there.

Experienced meditators knew this point. As an example, the sounds of a guitar are not in the music instrument. The sounds are arising only by plucking or strumming with the fingers.

The nature of the mind is inclining towards the sense objects. Vedana is feeling the object with the mind. The mind touches with the sense object is the nature of the contact (phassa). Usually, we are talking about knowing the mind knows the sense objects. E.g., this flower is beautiful. It is too hot. This is talking about contact (phassa), & not about the mind.

We are talking about external objects. Forgetting the mind & talking about the objects. In the contemplation of the mind, the Buddha told us to be aware or mindful of the mind. The mind also mixed with mental factors. All minds know the objects that they are only one nature. Here the Buddha distinguished the minds related to its situations. It can be 16 types. Not necessary everyone has 16 types.

The Buddha mentioned it in general. Here, the 16 types of mind & in the other places were not the same; e.g. in the Abhidhammatha Sangaha – Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma. For contemplation purpose, the Buddha divided it into 16 types. It is like separating the cows with their colors, but all of them are cows. In the same case, all minds, nature is only knowing.

The instruction was; “He knows a lustful mind as a lustful mind, etc.” If we contemplate only greed or lust, then it becomes contemplation of dhammas. But in the real contemplation, with the discrimination of “Is it the body or the feeling?”, then you miss the point. Not necessary to discriminate in this way. You will be caught up with an object of contemplation.

In the satipatthāna, the Buddha taught the possible four types of object in vipassanā practice (body, feeling, mind & dhamma). We cannot say, I will contemplate the only mind, only feeling, etc. Whatever it is arising, only need to know the arising phenomenon there. Contemplation of the body is existing as form (rūpa) & not mixing with others. But feeling (vedana), mind (consciousness) & dhammas are mixing up together.

So it is unnecessary to discriminate them. In the Visuddhimagga Text & Mahasi Sayadaw, both instructed to contemplate whatever was arising. In the beginning, it is difficult to contemplate all of them. With the practice and it becomes easier.

The sixteen states of mind are mundane & not including the supramundane. They are eight categories can be subdivided into two sets. These two sets are ordinary states of mind & higher states of mind. The first set includes unwholesome & wholesome ordinary states of mind. The 2nd set is concerned with the presence or absence of higher states of mind.

Eight categories of ordinary states of mind:

[1] lustful (sarāga)
[2] Without lust (visarāga)
[3] angry (sadosa)
[4] Without anger (visadosa)
[5] deluded (samoha)
[6] Without delusion (visamoha)
[7] contracted or sloth-&-torpor (saṅkhitta)
[8] distracted (vikhitta)

Eight categories of higher states of mind:

[9] great or jhānic mind (mahaggata)
[10] mind without jhānas (amahaggata)
[11] unsurpassable or immaterial jhānas (anuttara)
[12] surpassable or material jhanas (sa-uttara). Here the unsurpassable not include
Supramundane. Anuttara & sa-uttara also higher & ordinary wholesome mental states.
[13] concentrated or samādhi mind (samāhita)
[14] without samādhi (asamāhita)
[15] liberated (vimutta)
[16] without liberated (avimutta).

Here Sayadaw referred to the liberated mind state is with insight knowledge. E.g., by seeing anicca (inconstant) liberate from nicca (permanent).

And then as a 2nd stage; “He abides contemplating the mind internally, externally & then both.” All are the same nature. With the practice, the contemplation sticks with the mind & knowing about it and with the development, discerning the arising & passing away regarding the mind.

The mindfulness that there is a mind is established in him to the extent necessary for bare knowledge. And then the yogi frees from wrong view & craving (ditthi & tanhā), becomes independent and not clinging anything in the world. Now, the mind is free.

文章: 405
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Contemplation of the dhammas – Dhammānupassanā

文章 Nalorakk » 2019-11-22, 16:20

(4) Contemplation of the dhammas – Dhammānupassanā

Condensed, the four satipatthāna objects only have mind & body. Contemplation of the body is called rūpapariggaha – discernments of the body. Contemplation of the feelings & mind is called nāmapariggaha – discernments of the mind. Combined the body & the mind contemplations become dhammānupassanā.

In the contemplation of the body – the contemplation is on the real material phenomena. They are arising by causes & conditions. They are originating from kamma, consciousness, temperature & nutriment (kamma, citta, utu, āhāra).

Some material phenomena are not by causes, the outcomes of the real material phenomena. They are called non-concrete matters (anipphanna rūpa), as an, e.g. the space element. There are 28 matters; 18 are concrete & 10 non-concrete matters. In contemplation of matters, only contemplate the 18 concrete matters, e.g., the four great elements. In contemplation of the mind, only contemplate the mundane mind with their mental states. Because they create the suffering of the round of existence.

Among the five path factors (contemplating mind), sati & ñāna (paññā) are the main important factors. Because sati takes the object & ñāna contemplates. The meaning of dhamma is quite extensive. Therefore define its meaning accordingly with its function.

If not, it can be confused. If taking dhamma as nature, then it includes everything, even Nibbāna. The main meaning of dhamma is not a being & not a soul (nisatta & nijiva). Combine with others have to understand as has its nature. So it includes all. Contemplation of dhammas is in 5 sections.

[1] The hindrances (nīvarana)
[2] The aggregates (khandhas)
[3] The sense-spheres (āyatana)
[4] The awakening factors (bojjhaṅga)
[5] The Four Noble Truths (the four ariyasacca).

Why the Buddha only divided these five dhammas? Dhamma is extensive & these only are important. In the world, it is very important to distinguish what is important & what is not or unimportant. Most human beings are wasting their precious times & energies in unimportant things & matters. This point is very important to take care, reflect & act in our daily lives accordingly.

[1] The five hindrances – The 5 Nīvaranas:

The 5 hindrances are;
<1> sensual desire (kāmacchanda),
<2> aversion (byāpāda),
<3> sloth-&-torpor (thina-middha),
<4> restlessness-&-worry (uddhacca-kukkucca)
<5> doubt (vicikicchā).

In the practice of samatha or vipassanā to remove them far away is very important. If not, the practice cannot progress. Even wholesome dhammas cannot arise. These hindrances are the causes for the defilement of the mind. It weakens knowledge. Even it can defile the purified mind (e.g., some yogis lost their samādhi which had been developed).

For each hindrance, the yogi has to know them in 5 points.--Sensual desire:

<1> There is sensual desire in me

<2> There is no sensual desire in me.
Contemplate & checking the hindrance. This is not only arising now, but also happen very often. Some ask, this is practice or not. Sayadaw said that this was contemplation. If we do not reflect & check, how do we know it exists or not. With knowledge, we can correct it. This point is very important. Usually, people only are thinking about what things they have or not have? (e.g., money, power, fame…etc.) So people are always thinking with defilements (kilesa)

<3> He knows how unarisen sensual desire can arise or why it happens?
Have to find out the causes. Why it happened, the Buddha not mentioned it here? But he taught in other suttas. E.g., lust arises because of wrong attention (ayoniso) on the beauty of the object. Therefore defilement arises & increases when the problem has arisen.

<4> How can the arisen sensual desire be removed?
When it happens & how to remove it? Can be removed lust by contemplating the unattractiveness of the object (asubha).

<5> How can a future arising of the removed sensual desire be prevented?
The other hindrances are also contemplated in these ways if we can find out the answers & try to remove them.
And then contemplating dhammas internally, externally & both. With the development, the yogi discerns the arising & passing away in dhammas, etc.

[2] The aggregates: the Khandhas:

The yogi contemplates dhammas in terms of the five aggregates of clinging in the following ways. The Buddha taught three ways; -- Body aggregate (rūpakkhanda)

<1> Such is material form – knowing its nature
<2> Such is its arising
<3> Such is its passing away

The other four khandhas of; feeling, cognition volitions & consciousness are also in the same way for contemplations.

[3] Sense-spheres: Āyatanas:
The yogi contemplates dhammas in terms of the six internal & external sense-spheres, in the following ways. With the contacts of the six internal sense-spheres (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body & mind) & the six external sense-spheres (forms, sounds, odors, flavors, tangibles & mind objects) the six consciousness arise.

It is not necessary with every contact & fetter (samyojana) arises. If it is arising, then find out the causes. There are ten fetters; belief in a substantial & permanent self; doubt, dogmatic clinging to particular rules & observations, sensual desire, aversion, craving for fine material existence, craving for immaterial existence, conceit, restlessness & ignorance.

The Buddha’s instruction:

“He knows the eye, he knows forms, & he knows the fetter that arises dependent on both, & he also knows how an arisen fetter can arise, how an arisen fetter can be removed & how a future arising of the removed fetter can be prevented.” The other internal & external sense-spheres also know in this way.

The instruction can be put into simple terms. 1. With the contact of sense doors & sense objects, mind-consciousness arises, etc. 2. fetters can arise 3. Why does it happen? 4. How to remove it? 5. What has to be done for removing it?

And then the yogi contemplates the dhammas internally, externally & both; seeing the arising & passing away in dhammas, etc.

[4] The awakening factors: Bojjhaṅgas:

These are the mental qualities that provide the conditions conducive to awakening. Just as rivers incline & flow towards the ocean, they incline towards Nibbāna. There are 7 bojjhaṅgas;

<1> Mindfulness (sati),
<2> investigation of dhammas (dhamma-vicaya)
<3> energy (viriya),
<4> joy (piti),
<5> tranquillity (passaddhi),
<6> concentration (samādhi)
<7> equanimity (upekkhā).

Why the Buddha taught the bojjhanga dhammas? As a human being, it is very important to know about the unwholesome dhammas. So that we cannot fall into it. Also, as a human being, it is very important to know about wholesome dhamma.
So that we can develop it. If we observe the world today & will know how important these points are (e.g., political conflicts, society problems, immorality, all sorts of pollutions, etc. are happening more than before).

If we know our mind by checking & observing, it becomes clear that what should have to be done & what should not have to be done, what is proper & what is not proper, what is beneficial & what is not beneficial, etc.

The instruction for awakening factors is: “If mindfulness (sati) is present in the yogi, he knows that mindfulness awakening factor in him. If mindfulness not present in him & knows that also.

The yogi knows how the unrisen mindfulness factor can arise. And how the arisen mindfulness factor can be perfected by development. The above instruction can be mentioned in simple ways. Contemplate for;

<1> I have sati,
<2> I don’t have sati,
<3> How to make it arises?,
<4> How to develop it?

The other six awakening factors are also practiced in these ways after that contemplating dhammas internally, externally & both. With the development, the yogi discerns the nature of arising & passing away in dhammas, etc.

[5] The Four Noble Truths: The 4 Ariyasaccas:

The final exercise among the satipatthāna contemplations is the four noble truths. The instruction is: The yogi knows as it is; “This is dukkha, this is the arising of dukkha, this is the cessation of dukkha & this is the way leading to the cessation of dukkha.”

The four noble truths have been explained quite in details before. Therefore give only a rough idea. In the Buddha’s first discourse, the penetration of the truths had three levels each; study, practice & realization.

Only we know the teaching that it can be practiced. With the practice, only one can have the realization. The Buddha was like a doctor. The four noble truths were like; disease (dukkha), virus (craving-tanhā), health (Nibbāna) & medicine (The path factors).

<1> The first truth of dukkha – Dukkha has to be understood

<2> The 2nd truth of the cause of dukkha – its origination has to be abandoned. Craving/tanhā has to be abandoned.

<3> The 3rd truth of the cessation of dukkha – Its cessation has to be realized. This is the realization of Nibbāna or the ending of dukkha.

<4> The 4th truth of the way to the cessation of dukkha – The practical path to this realization has to be developed.

This is the Noble Eightfold Path.Therefore the four noble truths are the outcome of the practice. For the penetration of dukkha thoroughly, one must do the vipassana practice, which is sīla, samādhi & paññā. With the practice going on until to the ending of vipassanā process where dukkha (the five khandhas – mind and body) & the cause (craving/tanhā) are ceased. This is Nibbāna.

The Prediction:

Near the end of the satipatthāna discourse, the Buddha gave the prediction or guarantee for the yogis who had practiced diligently without wavering would have the following results. For seven years could be expected final knowledge (arahant) or non-returning (anāgāmi).

Let alone seven years – 6 years – 5 years – 4 years – 3 years – 2 years – one year – 7 months – 6-months – 5 months – 4 months – 3 months – 2 months – one month – half a month and seven days, one of 2 fruits could be expected for him.

These were not exaggerations. The Burmese monk, Soon Loong Sayadaw (1877 - 1952) had his final realization within four months (i.e., from the beginning of the practice to the final realization, four paths & fruits within four months. The year was 1920. For Sayadaw’s life & his practice see Jack Kornfield’s book – Living Buddhist Masters).

This section on the 32nd highest blessing of seeing the noble truths is the most important of all the blessings. It is connecting with the whole Buddhist practices to end dukkha. Therefore I want to present more on this section. Actually; 30th blessing – austerity, 31st blessing – celibacy, 32nd blessing – seeing noble truths & the 33rd blessing – realizing Nibbāna are connecting with practices.

Satipatthāna Practice for Everyone:

The following Dhamma notes are from the Dhamma talk given by the Ven. Dr. Nandamalarbhivamsa. Without practicing satipatthāna, no-one can realize paths & fruits (magga & phala). There were enough evidence about this in some suttas. The Nalanda Sutta (from Satipatthāna saṁyutta) & Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta had mentioned this point.

Ven. Sariputta answered to the Buddha was: Every bodhisatta of the past had to abandon the hindrances with samādhi practice, had to concentrate on the satipatthāna practice, and had to develop the awakening factors (bojjhaṅgas) and became a Buddha.

The Buddha accepted his answer. Ven. Ānanda also mentioned the same thing; everyone by abandoning the hindrances, contemplations of the satipatthāna & developing the awakening factors became a noble being. Some writers wrote: “Did satipatthāna cut off the wrong view (ditthi) or craving (tanhā)?”

The Buddha Dhamma is cutting off all defilements (kilesas). The differences were only in the number of defilements which had been abandoned. E.g., the stream-winner (i.e., sotāpanna) has been cut off all wrong views & some amount of greed, anger & delusion.

Some amount of greed, anger & delusion here means, these defilements which can send a being to the woeful planes of existence. Ven. Sariputta asked Ven. Anuruddha as in what extent a yogi could be called a trainee (sekha) (someone realized anyone of the lower stages before the arahantship).

Ven. Anuruddha said that someone had developed some parts of satipatthāna was called a trainee (still in training). And after fully developed, it called one beyond training (asekha – an arahant).

In the Sala Sutta (from Satipatthāna-saṁyutta), the Buddha asked the novices & young monks to practice satipatthāna. What was the reason? For understanding the nature of the body, the feelings, the mind & the dhammas. It was practicing to know about them as it was (yathābhūtam). For becoming someone beyond training (asekha) had to practise to the point of full understanding.

After becoming an arahant also had to practise satipatthāna. For what reason? For peaceful abiding in fruition state (phala samāpatti)

In the Aṅguttara Nikāya, there is a section called Satipatthāna Vagga. It has ten suttas. There the Buddha mentioned the reasons for practicing satipatthāna.

[1] For not breaking the five precepts (pañcasīla).

[2] To abandon the five hindrances (pañca-nīvarana). Therefore to remove all unwholesome dhammas is satipatthāna practice.

[3] Sensual objects are binding the mind. To remove them or stay away from them, has to practice satipatthāna.

[4] To cut off the lower five fetters (samyojanas); i.e., identity view, doubt, clinging to particular rules & observances, sensual desire & aversion. This refers to become an anāgāmi (non-returner). These three lower fetters send beings to take rebirth in sensual realms.

[5] To be free from the five destinations (gati); i.e., hells, animals, hungry ghosts (peta), humans & deities. Also called the 31 realms of existence. This refers to become an arahant.

[6] For abandoning of the five kinds of selfishness (macchariya) or avarice (These are: with dwelling place, connections with relatives & supporters, on fortune & wealth, on beauty & fame & with Dhamma).

[7] To cut off the five higher fetters (i.e., the desire for becoming material jhānic gods, & immaterial jhānic gods, conceit, restlessness & ignorance). This refers to become an arahant.

[8] To move away from the barriers of the mind (cetokhila); such as doubts in the Buddha, Dhamma & Sangha& the practice, hate & aversion to one’s companions in practice, etc. With all these barriers in mind & the practice not going smoothly.

[9] There are shackles of the mind (cettovinibandha); such as sensual objects, one’s body, physical forms, material jhānic existences, etc. People have sīla or practicing sīla for the desiring of them. So, it needs to be freed from it. For removing them have to practise satipatthāna.

[10] For extinguishing of bodily dukkha, mental dukkha, sorrow & lamentation.

Practicing satipatthāna for these 10 points are connecting with the seven results mentioned in the introductions & the end of the satipatthāna sutta; i.e., for the purification of beings, for the surmounting of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of dukkha & discontent, for acquiring the true method & for the realization of Nibbāna.

文章: 405
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7 purifications

文章 Nalorakk » 2019-11-22, 16:26

A yogi without a teacher’s guidance for practice, it is very important to have some knowledge about the practice. Therefore, here includes a general idea of the process & progress of the stages of practice – the path of purification.

There are seven stages; purification in terms of virtue (sīla), mind (citta), view (ditthi), the overcoming of doubt or perplexity (vicikicchā), knowledge & vision of what is & what is not the path, knowledge & vision of the way, & knowledge & vision. These seven purifications cover all three parts of the 3-fold training in virtue, concentration & discernment (sīla, samādhi & paññā)

There was a discourse in the Majjima Nikāya called Ratha-vinita Sutta-Relay Chariots. In there Ven. Sariputta & Ven. Punna spoke of this list of 7 purifications. Here I give a general outline of this subject from the notes of Dhamma talks by Sayadaw Dr. Nandamalarbhivamsa. People want to know more details about them should read the Visuddhimagga – the Path of Purification by Buddhagosa.

(1) Sīla-visuddhi

Purification of Virtue: It is the purification of verbal & bodily actions.
Nibbāna element is free from all defilements or impurities. So it is called purity-visuddhi. The practice to realize this purity is the path- i.e., the Noble Eightfold Path (magga). Nibbāna nature is intrinsic purity. Therefore to arrive there, these seven processes are the ways of purification. So there are seven stages for it.

To purify oneself from the unwholesome dhammas which soil the virtues (sīla). Bodily & verbal unwholesome actions become purified is purity in virtues (sīla-visuddhi). Some defilements (kilesa) have to purify with virtues. It is purifying with sīla or purification by sīla. What are called virtues? There are quite a few kinds of them, such as five precepts, eight precepts, ten precepts, etc.

The mental volition motivates oneself to abstain from related unwholesome dhammas, is sīla. Not only volition, but the function of abstaining itself is also sīla. As an, e.g. someone encounters a situation for telling a lie, but he does not commit it. Controlling oneself from doing unwholesome things is also sīla. Restraint is a virtue & called samvara sīla. Restraining of the senses is preventing the unwholesome dhammas coming in.

This is practicing with sati (mindfulness). Always one has to be alert with mindfulness. Most people think or know as abstaining from doing wrongs is sīla. This is virati sīla. All volitional motivations are sīla. It needs to understand the foundation of sīla. So that one can look after it. E.g., in the five precepts, the first one is abstaining from taking life. Knowing that much is not enough. It must like a fence stops the cows to come in.

Undertaking the practice of virtues or other things cannot do it in a relaxed way. It must do with great effort or ardently (ātāpī). For different reasons & causes, people are stopping their undertaking of sīla. This is limited sīla. There are levels of sīla; such as give up one’s life for sīla or protecting one’s sīla with life, trainee’s sīla (sotāpanna, once-returner & non-returner) & asekkha’s sīla (the arahant). Virtues (sīla) is the root of wisdom (paññā).

Dhammas are enriching the stability of sīla. These are; indriya samvara sīla – restraining of the senses, this is the exercising with sati. Connection with the mind; right livelihood (sammā-ajiva);

Reflection on the 4 requisites, i.e. robes, food, dwelling & medicine (also may be other things); tolerating, such as cold, heat, hunger, thirst, touch of flies, mosquitoes, wind, sun, reptiles, ill-spoken, etc., avoiding things & matters which can effect sīla, etc..

Therefore sīla is like the root of a tree. Very important for mundane & supramundane matters. Sīla can be easily spoiled. To make it strong & stable needs the power of samādhi to support it. This is the 2nd stage of purity.

文章: 405
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Citta-visudhi: Purification of the mind

文章 Nalorakk » 2019-11-22, 16:28

(2) Citta-visudhi: Purification of the mind

This is referred to as samatha or samādhi (concentration) practices. Sīla only can purify the bodily & verbal unwholesome actions & not the mind. If the mind is not strong enough or in purity & easily break the precepts. The most important point for samādhi is it supports for discernment (paññā or knowledge).

The Buddha said; “Samahito yathabhūtaṁ pajanati – Someone has samādhi seeing things as it is.” Therefore sīla & samādhi are the two strong roots of a tree to grow. In many suttas, the Buddha referred to right concentration as the four material jhānas (rūpa-jhāna). This was a common process mentioned in the suttas. There was another way for right samādhi. This was paññā based samādhi.

So with momentary samādhi (khanika samādhi) also can develop knowledge. What are the differences between samatha based & vipassanā based samādhi? Samatha based samādhi is pleasant abiding, last longer & comfortable in practice. The commentary gave an example of crossing a river. Samatha based samādhi is like crossing a river by boat & vipassanā based samādhi is like swimming across the river. Both will arrive on the other shore.

Some people doubt the power of vipassanā based samādhi (i.e., khanika samādhi) can lead to realization. There was enough evidence among the yogis of the past & the present day yogis experiences. Every path & fruit has the jhānic power of samādhi. Citta-visuddhi has three kinds of samādhi; khanika samādhi (momentary concentration), upacāra samādhi (access concentration) & appanā samādhi (absorption concentration).

After the stage of the purification of the mind comes the 5 stages of the purification of knowledge follow (paññāvisuddhi); these are; the purifications of view (ditthi); the overcoming of doubt (vicikicchā); knowledge & vision of what is & what is not the path; knowledge & vision of the way; and knowledge & vision (Ñānadassanavisuddhi).

We can develop these five stages of purification only in the Buddha Dhamma. Therefore how much fortunate we are if we miss this chance knowingly and become the most foolish & stupid human being in the world.

文章: 405
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Ditthivisuddhi: Purification of view

文章 Nalorakk » 2019-11-22, 16:36

(3) Ditthivisuddhi: Purification of view

Insight practice (vipassanā) is directly referring to wisdom or knowledge (paññā). There are two basic knowledges for vipassanā practice. These are the discernment of mind & matter (nāmarūpa pariggaha ñāna) & the discernment of the conditions of mind & matter (paccayapariggaha ñāna). In purifications, it referred to ditthivisuddhi & kankhāvitaranavisuddhi (No. 3 & 4 visuddhis).

For these two basic insight knowledge or purities in view & overcoming doubt, the yogis need to do two things. These are; 1. Study or soil of knowledge or field of knowledge (paññā-bhūmi), 2. Developing or exercising (Ñāna-pariseyya).

For doing the practice rightly has to do the study. The yogis need to study about the five khandhas (aggregates), āyatanas (sense bases), dhātu (elements), indriyas (faculties), the four noble truths & dependent co-arising (paticcasamupuda). To have this learning knowledge (sutamaya paññā) need to study many times. Mogok Sayadaw’s Dhamma talks were a very good example for this purpose. After learning & developing or exercising them by practice.

The Pali word ditthi meaning is view. In the suttas using by itself usually means the wrong view. Right view is adding sammā in front of ditthi, i.e., sammā-ditthi. Wrong views are many; the main one is the identity view (sakkāya-ditthi). Other wrong views extended from it.

So here purity in view is purified this identity view. Where is this identity view sticking? It is sticking in the five khandhas. Take the five khandhas (body, feeling, perception, volitions & consciousness) as I, me & mine. Therefore we can also take each one of the khandhas as me & mine. There are 20 types of identity view obtained by posting a self in the four given ways about the five khandhas. Some examples as

[1] regards form as self,
[2] self as possessing form,
[3] form as in self,
[4] self as in form
[17] regards consciousness as self,
[18] self as possessing consciousness,
[19] consciousness as in self,
[20] self as in consciousness.

There is a very common wrong view take the mind as a self situated in the form (the body), as like a jewel is in a casket. When a person dies & its mind not dies. After death, it leaves the old (dead) body behind & takes a new body, as like changing new clothes. Even some Buddhists believe in this way (including Buddhist monks & it is no need to say other faiths). It is a soul existed theory & view.

It seems they misinterpret or misunderstand the Buddha Dhamma. They are the followers of Bhikkhu Sāti (See – Mahātanhāsankhaya Sutta). The notion obsesses people life: I am forming, the form is mine. As they are living & obsessing by these notions & when any one of the khandhas changes & alters, with these there arise in them sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief & despair.

Identity view is one of the first three fetters (samyojanas) to be eradicated by the first path (sotāpattimagga). This is the most important fetter has to be eradicated first. With this, self-view or selfishness and beings are easily committing unwholesomeness & heavy evil kammas. The wrong view is related to ignorance (avijjā) or delusion (moha). Right view is related to knowledge (vijjā) or non-delusion (amoha).

Ignorance & craving (tanhā) are the two basic causes for dukkha or the round of existence (saṁsāra). Identity view is ingrained with the coarsest ignorance & craving. With this fetter latent in the heart (mind) the other higher paths of realization are impossible. The most terrible dangers & sufferings it can bring to living beings are the four woeful planes of existence (apāyas).

Therefore the Buddha was strongly urging people to eradicate the first three fetters (samjoyana) urgently in the two discourses; The Clothes & The Hundred Spears Discourses (from Saccasaṁyutta). If one’s clothes or head were ablaze, what should one do about it? It is for sure that everyone will extinguish the fire instantly. But for the Buddha to eradicate, the identity view was more important than the fire burning your body. With this fire, you will only die for this life.

If you are carrying the wrong view with you & will die again & again. Worse than that is will born in hells, as animals & hungry ghosts for uncountable times. Because these places are our frequent homes. Now, most of us are only a short visit here. Suppose someone with a life span of hundred years & could live up to it. And then someone comes to him & say; “Everyday in the morning I’ll strike you with a hundred spears, also at noon & evening times. In this way, I’ll strike you for 100 years. After 100 years have passed, you’ll realize the Dhamma.”

The Buddha told the monks that it fitted for someone intent on his/her good to accept the offer. The reason behind is the round of existence (saṁsāra) is without discoverable beginning & the first point cannot be discerned of the blows by spears & swords for each living being. (Later Buddhist philosophers postulated some theories on the beginning of saṁsāra & the first point of it & they neglected the Buddha’s words).

After study & learning for the field of knowledge on khandhas, āyatana dhātus, etc. & for developing knowledge to exercise or practice them. Here the satipatthāna practice comes in. For purification of view to arise must repeatedly contemplate again & again, until the wrong thinking of me & mine disappear. Only in this way become purity in view. Self-view (atta ditthi) & identity view (sakkāya ditthi) are the same. They are different only in words.

In the Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga), it suggested the yogi who attained jhānas to contemplate the mind first & then matter (rūpa). It is easier for him because with samādhi power easy to discern the mind. For vipassanā yanika, the yogi must contemplate the matter first. There are many yogis do not have a clear distinction between concept (paññātti) & ultimate reality (paramattha).

A venerable Sayadaw met with Mahasi Sayadaw at his center. At that time Mahasi Sayadawgyi was reading a book on meditation. He said to the Sayadaw that in that book, a yogi was contemplating his body, his head disappeared & it became particles. And then the yogi took it as the insight practice (vipassanā).

Mahasi Sayadaw asked him; “What do you think, this is the concept or ultimate reality?” The Sayadaw answered it as a concept, and Mahasi Sayadaw was agreed with him. And then Mahasi Sayadaw said that many yogis had samādhi, but it did not become the insight of reality (vipassanā paramattha).

In the time of before the Buddha & even now samatha practices existed. These yogis could not overcome or transcend concepts. Only the Buddha arose that vipassanā practice came into existence. In these seven purifications; purification of knowledge has five stages. It starts from the purification of view (ditthivisuddhi) to purification by knowledge & vision (Ñānadassana-visuddhi); i.e., stage 3 to 7.

According to the suttas, Yathābhūta Ñāna – the knowledge of phenomena as it is the discernment of mind & matter (Nāma-rūpapariggaha ñāna). This was taught by the Buddha in the Discourse of the Characteristics of Not-self (Anattalakkhana Sutta). An internationally well-known scholar monk said that some western scholars took the Dhamma in the Visuddhimagga textbook as not talked by the Buddha.

He said that it was wrong (speculation) because it was based on the Buddha’s teachings. People should not criticize blindly. If their speculations were true, they must point out the discrepancies between them. If we ask these people how they had studied many commentarial textbooks. Even some of them were self-learning of the Pali & Suttas by themselves without a teacher.

Ven. Buddhagosa had written details on the purification by knowledge or paññā-sarira (body of knowledge) in his Visuddhimagga text book. These were not his ideas. It was based on the old Pali textbooks handed down from the old generations, he studied & took notes of them, & produced this very important commentary on the practice. Understanding the mind & matter is still not enough yet also have to know about the causes & conditions for them. If not with all the wrong reasoning & speculations will be in the wrong directions.

For some examples; God creates the mind & matter, or it happened without causes, or by the past causes, etc. All these wrong views will make one stray away from the right direction. There are many different causes & conditions; e.g. the past & the present causes & conditions, supporting & producing causes & conditions from the surroundings, etc.

We must know or understand the different causes & conditions from different angles. Knowing only one cause is not complete (Some Buddhists had this idea). Knowing the causes & conditions thoroughly is paccayapariggaha ñāna – discernment of the conditions of mind & matter.

With this knowledge & we do not have any doubts in; “Did I exist in the past?” or “Will I become again in the future?” “Why I am here in the present?” As an, e.g. trees were existed in the past by the causes of soil, water & sunlight, etc. in the present & future also in this way. Knowing the causes & conditions clearly is kankhavitarana visuddhi – purification by overcoming doubt. The level of knowledge increases.

Continuing with the insight contemplation & similar fake dhammas of knowledge arise, or encounter. Because of the samādhi power that some of the phenomena are looking like path & fruit. So yogis can take it as attainments. Yogis cannot distinguish between the real & the fake. So they are making the wrong conclusion & judgments. E.g., the body light comes out.

Because of samādhi, the body disappears & only the mind exists. The whole body & mind become tranquil. These are similar to the path that the yogi thinks it as the attainment. And then he is straying away from the path. If a train strays away from the line will be overturned. And then it cannot go forwards. If the yogi can distinguish between the fake & the real is the purification of path & not-path (maggāmagga ñānadassanavisuddhi). This is the 5th purity.

If the yogi is in the right direction & with the practice, knowledge develops step by step. This is the purification of the way (patipadā ñānadassanavisuddhi). This is the 6th purity. From ditthi-visuddhi to patipadā-ñānadassana-visuddhi are the four purification processes by insight. When arriving at the climax, there is an attainment which is not by producing.

This is the purification by knowledge & vision (Ñānadassana-visuddhi). This is the 7th purity. This Pali word is different from the others 5th & 6th purifications & without prefixes, such as maggā-magga & patipadā. The yogi knows that he is on the right direction is the purification of the way. If he continues forwards will arrive at the ending & which is the goal. This is knowledge & vision or knowing & seeing (Ñāna & dassana). What the yogi knows & sees?

Knowing is function & seeing is power. Here not included the prefix words, what were the knowing & seeing? In the patipadā ñānadassana, knowing & seeing the process of the path. Ñānadassana here is knowing & seeing the four noble truths. It is also called Dhamma Eye – Dhamma Cakkhu.

In the Buddha’s First Discourse (Turning the Wheel of Dhamma); the descriptions were, cakkhuṁ udapādi-ñānaṁ udapādi, etc. (There arose in me vision, knowledge, etc.) was referred to the 7th purity or this level. This is knowing & seeing the four noble truths. With the developing of the truth of the path will know the truth of dukkha. With the knowledge of dukkha can abandon the truth of the cause (samudaya) & see the truth of the cessation of dukkha.

It happens at the same time. With one functioning & finishing the four tasks. Using of one description; it is knowing & seeing Nibbāna. Therefore, ñānadassana is not vipassanā knowledge & referring to path & fruit (magga & phala). We can say these are the results. How long it takes the yogi to get the attainment? Nobody can say exactly. It depends on each person. As examples;

Tipitaka master Mahā Siva practiced for 30 years. Ven. Anuruddha with samatha practice, he attained divine eye. And then he continued the insight not attained this knowledge & vision. After with the help of Ven. Sariputta & realized it. Attainments are not our concerns. It was like planting a fruit tree. Flowers & fruits appeared were the work of the tree. Doing practice is only our concern. When the time is ripe, it will appear.

For the spiritual faculties to be matured, the yogi must always do the practice. It was like wiping cloth. Washing it only for one time & never again, then it becomes dirtier & dirtier. If we practice always, & it will be in progress. It was also like always washing clothes & bathing.

If not, even we cannot bear our smells. The mind is also in the same way; only then it can be purified. From the purification of view (the 3rd) to knowledge & vision (the 7th purity) which have mentioned above are in general.

For the practice, firstly we have to study & learn the Buddha-Dhamma with textbooks or Dhamma talks. Practice under a learned experienced teach is better. If we have doubts & not clear about the Dhamma & practice should ask the teacher. In this way will get the knowledge by learning & listening (sutamaya ñāna).

After this, start with the practice of purification in sīla & mind (samādhi). With the purity in virtue & mind, & develop the insight practice (vipassanā). Some think these processes were Ven. Buddhagosa’s ideas. In the Ratha-vinita Sutta, questions & answers between Ven. Sariputta & Ven. Punna was about these seven purifications.

It was also sure that not all of the Buddha’s teachings could be recorded, and only some of them or the majority of them. If we can accept that the Buddha was the busiest person, his 45 years of teaching could be a lot more. From where we have to start with the purification of view. The objects of insight practice are; the five aggregates, the 12 sense bases & the 18 elements.

Here can be divided into two groups of a yogi; samatha-yanika (samatha based yogi) & vipassanā-yanika (insight-based yogi). If the yogi is samatha-yanika starts with the contemplation of the mind & then later with matter (rūpa). If a vipassanā-yanika he should start with the matter. These were the instructions in the Visuddhimagga. It was handed down by the old generation of teachers.

Teaching is right or wrong; we cannot only confirm by the records. But also we have to take the yogis’ accounts of experiences & results. It is necessary to pay more attention to the important points for contemplation. Starting from the matter is easier because it is more prominent than the mind.

In the Great Elephant Footprint Simile Discourse/Mahā-hatthipadopama Sutta (From Majjima Nikāya), Ven. Sariputta taught the monks on practice was including the four great elements; earth (patthavi), liquid or water (āpo), fire (tejo), wind (vayo) properties & including space (ākāsa) element.

In the sutta, the venerable started with the four noble truths, which were like the footprint of an elephant encompassed all the other animals’ footprints. And all the skillful qualities were included in the four noble truths. It started with the four great elements as contemplation (including space element).

And then continued with the Dependent co-arising (Paticcasamupada). In this sutta, we can find about the five khandhas, āyatana & 18 dhātus. In other suttas, we found the six elements, added with consciousness (viññāna) (e.g., An Analysis of the Properties Discourse, Sutta No. 140, Majjima Nikāya).

In the Great Elephant Footprint Simile, the earth element was not referred to the intrinsic nature of hardness, softness, etc. But referred to the bodily parts as hard, solid & sustained by craving (tanhā); head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, etc. Both the internal & external earth elements are simply earth elements.

That should be seen as it is with right discernment. This is not mine; this is not me; this is not myself. When one sees it thus as it is with right discernment. One becomes disenchanted with the earth element & makes the mind dispassionate towards the earth element.

Nowadays, in Burma, most yogis talk about between concepts (paññatti) & ultimate reality (paramattha). According to them, the practice has to be on the paramattha. Here in this sutta, the four great elements were using with the concepts of the bodily parts.

Some may think that these are not basic. If the yogis arrive at the level of the arising & passing away of phenomena (udayabbaya ñānam) will penetrate the ultimate reality (paramattha). At the beginning of the practice, talk about the paramattha will not get to the point. And then some of the meditations on the four great elements of the Buddha is becoming critical.

Why did the Buddha teach in this way? Humans attach to things are not paramattha dhammas, e.g. my hairs, my face, etc. They do not attach to the hardness, softness, etc. of the earth elements. Therefore the Buddha was using concepts to dispel the basic concepts. It can be only fallen away by right seeing (yathabhūta).

Whatever internal, belonging to oneself as a liquid or watery element; bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, etc. This is called internal water elements. Both the internal & the external water elements are simply water element. That should be seen as it is with right discernment. This is not mine, not me & not myself. When one sees it thus as it is with right discernment, & one becomes disenchanted with the water element & makes the mind dispassionate towards the water element.

The internal fire element in oneself is; by which the body is warmed, aged & consumed with fever, what is eaten, drunk, chewed & savor gets properly digested or whatever else internal within oneself is fire, fiery. This is called the internal fire element within oneself.

Whatever internal belonging to oneself is wind, windy: up going winds, down going winds, winds in the stomach in the intestines, winds that course through the body, in & out breathing or whatever as internal within oneself is wind, windy. This is called the internal wind element.

In this way, the yogi contemplates the four elements to discern them. And then the concepts of person or beings disappear. It was like cutting a cow into pieces & with the piles of flesh, the concept of the cow disappeared.

With the great four elements, there are other four elements: color, smell, taste & nutrient. These eight matters are indivisible. They all are together. If talking about the matter, always remember these eight qualities.

Example of an external matter, a bread – we can analyze the four great elements in it. Can see the color with the eye, its smell can be smelled with the nose, can know the taste or flavor, & after eating it, the body receives the nutrient (such as protein, vitamins, etc.). Combined them all are eight matters (rūpa). If they are separated, it does not exist anymore. We have to contemplate this nature.

By doing the exercises & the view of a being will disappear. With concept falling away, the yogi penetrates its essence. After the contemplation of matter, & the yogi continues the contemplation to know the mind. Using the sense bases (āyatana) with contemplation, it becomes clearer.

With the contact of the eye & the physical form, seeing consciousness arises. This is the arising of the mind (nāma dhamma). The other sense bases also contemplate in this way. Contemplation of the 18 elements is also in the same way.

文章: 405
註冊時間: 2017-03-03, 08:00

Kaṅkhāvitaranavisuddhi: Purification by overcoming doubt

文章 Nalorakk » 2019-11-22, 16:40

(4) Kaṅkhāvitaranavisuddhi: Purification by overcoming doubt

Kaṅkha means doubting. The yogi cannot decide whether it is right or wrong. The mind becomes tired of uncertainty. As an example, someone is arriving at the crossed-roads, cannot decide which direction has to follow & stopping there. In the same way with one’s practice cannot conclude & stopping there. Only with right knowing & seeing can overcome the difficulty. Vitarana means overcoming. It is overcoming doubt by knowledge (Not with the blind faith).

To get this knowledge, it needs to know the right causes of the mind & matter. Why have doubts? Some are a connection with the present & others are not. The present can be known by oneself, & also it cannot be by oneself. There are two knowledges, with direct knowledge & inference. Direct knowledge can be known with the body (i.e., with the senses), e.g. someone never eats durian fruits before.

Now if he has the chance to eat one of them will know its taste. The others even he does not eat them, will know its taste with inference. In the same way; this life happens in this way, so be in the past & will also be in the future. If the yogi overcoming doubt with direct knowing & inferences will get this knowledge. How to do it? We must try to know the causes thoroughly.

This is the discernment or knowledge of the conditions of mind & matter (nāmarūpa paccayapariggaha ñānam). What are the mind & matter? With the eyes, ears, nose, tongue & body – the five internal senses & the five external sense objects – physical form, sound…tangible objects are matters. Matters cannot take & know the sense objects.

They cannot incline towards the sense objects. Matters (rūpa) is so called because it undergoes & imposes alteration owing to adverse physical conditions such as cold & heat, etc. In the Saṁyutta Nikāya, the Buddha defined it as deformed or afflicted by cold, heat, hunger, thirst, flies, mosquitoes, wind, sunburn & creeping things.

It changes distinctly, with forms & shapes. All these are matters (rūpa). With the contact of sense objects & sense doors, the knowing mind arises. This is roughly defining. This dhamma (mind phenomenon) is inclining towards the objects or facing towards the objects. Therefore it is called name (nāma) or mind (mind always co-existing with mental factors – cetasikas). As an example, on a quiet night with a bang sound & the mind instantly inclines towards the sound.

The mind with the other objects is also in the same way. Therefore knowing about the sense objects is mind. With the alteration, deformation & infliction are matters. This is a full understanding of the known (ñatapariññā), one understands the five khandhas (mind & matter) in terms of their characteristics, etc. The learning knowledge is also including here.

We must try to know them directly with knowledge (ñānam). Knowing that nothing is existing except mind & matter, then it becomes ditthivisuddhi. After that, the yogi continues to investigate why mind & matter arise & how they arise? If something is happening, we have to search for the causes as to why it arises. It was like after knowing the type of illness & searching for the causes.

If the yogi finds out the causes & knows the causes, it becomes discernment of conditions (paccayapariggaha ñānam). By knowing the conditions that the doubt of why it happens is overcome. All of these are knowledge. For talking about roughly on the matter; the conditions are kamma, mind, temperature & nutriment (kamma, citta, utu, āhāra). From the Abhidhamma teaching, we can know it in details.

Here are only four conditions. For example; the eye sensitivity (cakkhu-pasāda) arises by kamma. Therefore if the eye damaged, we cannot restore its vision. But without of kamma & can be restored the vision with the artificial eye, then we have to reconsider for other conditions. Then it will be not by kamma only. Matters which can perform this kind of ability are made by kamma (from the eye to other physical sensitivities).

The mind phenomenon is very strange, indeed. The mind can arise Even sound, e.g. the voice comes out by sadness & the voice comes out by joy are not the same. The mind produces these voices and leading by the mind. The natural sounds from external such as thunder & windy sounds arise by temperature (utu). Sound can be arisen by the mind or temperature (the main factors).

The sounds of animals are mind made. What are the causes of the snoring sound during a sleep? With nutrients or vitamins, the eyes become healthy. All are collectively supporting together for matters. It is similar for a tree to grow there are many conditions. Contemplation & reflection can be taken as meditation.

By doing it will increase knowledge. It is not only closing the eyes & sitting. Thinking & reflecting on the world is meditation. Teaching & listening Dhamma talks are also meditation (see Khemaka Sutta of Saṁyutta-Nikāya). When coming out from the mother’s womb, a child was very small. With foods or nutrients, the body grows up. Eating a lot & it becomes fat. The Buddha had said in a sutta that with the causes of mind & temperature (citta & utu) foods were lacking nutriments & humans beings had short life span & diseases.

After the contemplation on the matter & the yogi continues for the mind. How & why mind arises? E.g., seeing consciousness; with the contact of eye & physical object & seeing consciousness arises. The other sense bases also have to be understood in this way. Even we do not know many causes, at least have to know that much.

In the suttas, the Buddha also mentioned in this way. The mind dependents on causes to arise. From where it comes out or does it exist before? None of them are true & it does not hide anywhere. Because of conditions & the effect or result comes to be. Take an, e.g.;

Is there any fire in the gas lighter? No, there is not. It only has the conditions for its arising. The mind arises by adding a condition which makes it arising. It was like a guitar; its sound originally not existed. These two knowledges: the discernment of the mind & matter & its conditions are very important. These are the foundations of insight knowledge (vipassanā ñānam).

Only people have these two knowledges they can be called themselves as true Buddhists. This fact was mentioned by Ledi Sayadaw in some of his writings. That is true because you can not find it in other faiths. These also have a connection with the Dependent Co-arising Teaching (Paticcasamupada).

Therefore Mogok Sayadawgyi after his practice stopped his teaching for Abhidhamma to monks & laypersons. Instead, he focused on the teachings of practice until his final day. Therefore his Dhamma talks are treasures for yogis. I had translated some of them as “Emptiness, Conditioned & Unconditioned.”

Using the above two basic knowledges with contemplations, knowledge of comprehension (sammasanañānam) arises. We have to develop this knowledge. Insight knowledge is starting from this knowledge. With the 3rd & 4th purifications, the yogi knows about the natural phenomena & its causes. It is called full understanding of the known (Ñātapariññā).

After that continue the contemplation of full understanding by scrutinization (Tiranapariññā), just knowing them is not enough, if needs to be concluded. For this to be achieved, we have to contemplate it for many times.

There are two ways of contemplation; i.e., in a group or one by one. One by one method is difficult. So, we contemplate it in the group. Contemplate them under the three universal characteristics of impermanence, dukkha & not-self. It can also be contemplated in the past & future periods. But most people think that insight meditation (vipassanā) is only contemplating the present moment.

This can be possible only at the higher or developed levels. Before that, we need to contemplate them in the three periods – past, present & future. If mindfulness & concentration develop & will discern the present moment. We cannot skip over it. (It is the same as the four levels of realization. Everyone – including the bodhisatta has to past through the four levels one by one with the practice).

We need the ability to contemplate the past, present & future of the mind & matter in general. As an example, yesterday, mind & matter were not existing anymore for today. And today mind & matter also will not exist for tomorrow, etc. We can also contemplate a human life span into ten years in groups (i.e., ten years, 20 years, 30 years, etc.).

This is contemplating the changes in matter or body. We can contemplate the changing of the mind. It is very quick indeed, now this, now that, etc. Not only human beings are changing but also period. Because of the period changing that man’s life span & strength is changing & reducing continuously. Time is consuming living beings & making them disappear. It takes out all the freshness, youth & strength from them. Man cannot conquer time (generally speaking).

Birds are dying while flying; men are dying while planning. Who can consume time? This is the fully awakened one – arahant. Now I am writing this is at the beginning of the 2018 new year. The old year of 2017 had gone. Most people do not have a sense of urgency (saṁvega). During the new year, they are out of control by getting lost in the sensual pleasure of eating, drinking & shouting.

What did they achieve during the old last year? If we achieved something wholesome & good, then we should do it better during the new year. Wasting precious time without any wholesome achievements is foolishness.

Wholesome dhammas should always be cultivated at any time in any place. A couple from Hong Kong is welcoming the 2018 new year at a meditation retreat in Burma. After that, they will continue the spiritual journey at the holy site of Buddhagaya.

This is welcoming the new year with heedfulness. But the majority are doing it with heedlessness. With the development of sati & paññā (mindfulness & discernment) arriving at the knowledge of rising & fall of phenomena (udayabbaya ñānam). Here the contemplative mind is sharp enough for the present moment.

The yogi has a strong resolution. And then the ten insight corruptions come in & the yogi can be taken them as realization. Therefore he is stopping there. If he knows these are not representing the end of the way; then he is with the knowledge & vision of what is & what is not the path (maggāmaggañānadassana). With the continued contemplation & at last the yogi is arriving at the end of the spiritual journey. This is the purification by knowledge & vision (Ñānadassana-visuddhi).

文章: 405
註冊時間: 2017-03-03, 08:00

Purification of the Path & Not-Path; Purification of the Way

文章 Nalorakk » 2019-11-22, 16:44

(5) & (6) Purification of the Path & Not-Path; Purification of the Way

There are not much to talk about the 5th purification of path & not-path. When the yogi arrives at the knowledge of rising & fall of mind & matter (udayabhaya ñānam), the ten insight corruptions appear. These are; an aura (obhāso), rapture (piti), tranquillity (passaddhi), resolution (adhimokkha), exertion (paggaha), happiness (sukha), knowledge (ñānam), mindfulness (sati), equanimity (upekkhā) & attachment (nikanti).

If a yogi gets lost in any one of them & become an obstacle to the progress. Because the yogi takes it as the attainment & stops the practice. In Ven. Sayadaw Puññananda’s talk on the seven purifications was mentioning about them. Every yogi must encounter any of these phenomena.

The important point is they should not get lost in these processes. In the insight processes, there are no appearing of bodily form & particles. Paramattha dhammas are arising & passing away by itself & with insight defilement (kilesa) is purified. The mind becomes clear & bright that

[1] aura or light comes out from the body.

If samādhi is strong, it also has light. If you encounter them do not think about them & not taking pleasure in them. If not, the practice will go down. By not taking an interest in them & continue with the impermanent process will overcome the problem.

[2] sharp knowledge:

At the beginning of vipassanā practice, it was leading by samādhi that whatever arises knowing them with concepts. This was the task of satipatthāna. Sometimes if the yogi discerned impermanence, the contemplative mind had five path factors (sati, viriya, samādhi, sammāditthi & sammāsankappa).

This period was very short. After that, samādhi led the process again. In these ways sometimes led by samādhi & sometimes became knowledge (discern anicca). And then Sati became strong. Sometimes the mind is clear & sometimes not. When it is clear will discern impermanence. If not clear, only know the arising phenomena with concepts.

This level is still leading by samādhi. With samādhi develop step by step & only seeing anicca. This is leading by discernment (ñāna or knowledge). And then, knowledge becomes pure & sharper. With the better & sharper knowledge cannot discern anicca as separating one by one.

Instead, the yogi sees the passing away as a whole. When seeing annica with the strong power of mind or sharp knowledge & he takes it as attainment. At that time the yogi able to contemplate whatever coarse, middle, refined phenomena without failure. The yogi can take pleasure in it. With pleasure, his knowledge declines.

[3] Rapture (piti):

The important point here is whatever the yogi encounters he can solve the problem. Whatever type of contemplation we do or try when discerning anicca all phenomena (body, feeling, mind & dhamma)
Are dhamma arising & dhamma passing away? Only saṅkhāra (all conditioned things or the five khandhas) arises & saṅkhāra passing away. With the mind clear & pure, zest appears.

And then the yogi cannot discern anicca which is covered up by rapture. With strong respect on the three treasures (tiratana – i.e., Buddha, Dhamma & Sangha) rapture can arise. With the pervading rapture (pharana piti, which is the piti in jhāna attainment) cannot see impermanence. Without seeing anicca & the yogi thinks it as the ending of anicca, which is Nibbāna.

At that time, knowledge goes down. Even some yogis have tears come out. Instantly when rapture arises if he can contemplate it & no problem arises. If not the yogi takes it as the path knowledge & stops the contemplation.

[4] Tranquility (passaddhi): mind & body become tranquil.

Anyone of the ten corruptions can arise to the yogi. These things are sure to arise for yogis. If not encounter any of them, the mind still not mature yet. After the encounter, it & cannot solve them the yogi will far from Nibbāna. Normally people are burning with the fire of defilements such as greed, ill-will, delusion, sorrow, etc. the mind is not peaceful.

In the same way the body is oppressing by diseases & pains. But when the yogi discerning anicca with the strong power mind he can bear all the pains with equanimity. When the mind & body become tranquil, the mind can fall into one-pointedness (ekaggatā).

Then the yogi cannot hear any external sounds. And no external object disturbs the mind. It is peaceful. At that time anicca disappears & the mind sinks in the tranquillity & take it as the path knowledge. Each yogi experience is not the same. If the yogi can contemplate the arising fake dhamma (i.e., any of the ten corruptions), then contemplate its anicca. If not neglecting it & continue with one’s contemplation.

[5] Happiness (sukha):

From tranquillity, it progresses to the level of happiness then the yogi can maintain the posture for a very long time. Without any pain & aching, the mind feels happiness. At that time sukha replaces anicca & the yogi misses anicca. Also, the yogi not contemplates the arising happiness that knowledge falls.

[6] Resolution or faith (adhimokkha):

With the well discerning of anicca better & better, faith increases (i.e., in the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha). The whole body becomes cool & happy. This cool & happiness come from the faith which covers up anicca. So anicca disappears & the yogi took it as the attainment. With faith, if happiness arises, the yogi should not lose sati & contemplate the arising happiness as anicca.

Or without paying attention to it & continue with one’s practice. (There are two ways to solve the problems; contemplate the coming in corruptions as anicca or neglect it by contemplating one’s meditation object). Therefore in all these situations, sati is very important.

[7] Exertion (paggaha or viriya):

With the progress in the practice, the yogi can contemplate without any difficulty with happiness. So exertion increases & the mind with high spirit. Every time he puts effort and not to miss the point. At that time he could sink in the exertion & forget anicca. This is taking pleasure in exertion.

[8] Mindfulness (sati):

At that time (i.e., insight corruptions period) whatever dhamma arises mindfulness always falls on the object & becomes very strong. It is the kind of heedful mindfulness that even in a dream the yogi not lost his sati. If taking pleasure in strong mindfulness & he will miss anicca. Therefore whatever dhamma arises without letting go of anicca & always alert with sati (i.e., do not change the object and not getting lost in pleasure).

[9] Equanimity (upekkha):

Whatever dhamma arises, it can be contemplated with equanimity. The yogi also can attach to this state & taken it as attainment

[10] Attachment (nikanti):

All the above nine dhammas; light (obhāsa) to equanimity themselves are not defilements (kilesa). The problem is the attachment to all these fake dhammas, i.e., nikanti. These are significantly refined dhammas, and the signs of progress in practice. Every yogi must encounter them (not all).

The problem here is the yogi’s attachment or pleasure in them. It is nikanti or tanhā. Therefore it could hinder the yogi’s practice if they trapped him. So be careful to the refined & subtle experiences with strong & alert mindfulness.